EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-Based Monte Carlo Simulation of the Gamma Knife 4C versus MCNP Code in Homogeneous Media
Purpose: Gamma Knife is applied as a superseded tool for inaccessible lesions surgery delivering a single high dose to a well-defined target through 201 small beams. Monte Carlo simulations can be an appropriate supplementary tool to determine dosimetric parameters in small fields due to the related dosimetry hardships.
Materials and Methods: EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code was implemented to model Gamma Knife 4C. Single channel geometry comprising stationary and helmet collimators was simulated. A point source was considered as a cylindrical Cobalt source based on the simplified source channel mode. All of the 201 source channels were arranged in spherical coordinate by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc code to calculate dose profiles. The simulated profiles at the isocentre point in a spherical head phantom 160 mm in diameter along three axes for 4, 8, 14, and 18 mm field sizes were compared to those obtained by another work using MCNP code.
Results: Based on the results, the BEAMnrc and MCNP dose profiles matched well apart from the 18 mm profiles along X and Y directions with the average gamma index of 1.36 and 1.18, respectively. BEAMnrc profiles for 14 and 18 mm field sizes along X and Y axes were entirely flat in plateau region, whereas MCNP profiles represented variations as well as round shape. Besides, considering the identical results, radioactive source can be modeled by a point source instead of cylindrical one.
Conclusion: Thus, the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code is recommended to simulate Gamma Knife machine as it is regarded as the most accurate computer program to simulate photon and electron interactions.
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